Table 1 Prefrontal (PFC) and anterior cingulate (ACC) cortical regions and major functions23,28
PFC regionMajor functions
DLPFCExecutive functioning; social cognition; working memory; planning; cognitive flexibility; abstract reasoning; processing the subjective experience of aroused emotional states, including making unexpected emotional judgements
vmPFCEvaluating emotional states; integrating limbic emotional drives with contextualising temporal lobe memory states; coping and resilience through determination of control over stressors
mPFCTheory of mind (mentalising) – evaluating the mental state of others is on the dorsomedial aspect of the mPFC, self-reflection of one's own mental state on the ventral aspect
OFCEvaluating social and emotional cues; flexibly modifying judgements; decision-making based on experience
ACCConscious volitional reappraisal of the salience of strongly emotional stimuli; regulating emotional responses
  • DLPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; vmPFC, ventromedial prefrontal cortex; mPFC, medial prefrontal cortex; OFC, orbitofrontal cortex.