Table 3 Summary of studies presenting data on the outcome domain of patient safety (cohort studies)
Study and settingDesignNOutcome sub-domainMeasure/indicator
Alexander et al19
Medium and low secure
Retrospective cohort study Follow-up: 6 years30
  • Seclusion, restraint and intensive observations

  • Mean number of episodes per patient/month

Alexander et al18
Medium secure
Retrospective cohort study
Follow-up: 6 years
138
  • Seclusion, restraint and intensive observations

  • Mean number of episodes per patient/month (adjusted for length of stay)

Alexander et al5 Medium secureRetrospective cohort study
Follow-up: 4 years
138
  • Seclusion, restraint and intensive observations

  • Mean and median episodes per patient/month

Ayres & Roy21
Community
Case series
Follow-up: up to 3 years
26
  • Medication

  • Case study: reduction in frequency of use of pro re nata medication

Butwell et al24
High secure
Cohort study
Follow-up: 10 years
Up to 278
  • Death

  • Frequency of episodes (n and % of all patients)

Morrissey & Taylor37
High secure
Cohort study
Follow-up: 2 years
13
  • Seclusion

  • Hours per patient for every 6 months of treatment

Reed et al42
Low secure
Retrospective cohort study
Follow-up: up to 14 years
45
  • Seclusion, restraint and relocation

  • Episodes at baseline (weeks 6 to 10 of treatment) were compared to end of stay (last 4 weeks of treatment)

  • Mean monthly rates calculated to control for length of stay

Xenitidis et al43
Low secure
Retrospective cohort study (4)
Follow-up: up to 11 years
64
  • Seclusion

  • Episodes at baseline (week 6 to 10 of treatment) compared to end of stay (last 4 weeks of treatment)