Table 4 Summary of studies presenting data on the outcome domain of patient safety (cross-sectional studies)
Study and settingDesignNOutcome sub-domainMeasure/indicator
Esan et al4
Medium and low secure
(ASD v. Non-ASD)
  • PRN usage

  • Restraint, seclusion and intensive observations

  • Mean number of episodes (total frequency divided by total number of months of stay to provide an average monthly figure)

Mansell et al61
Medium and low secure
6-month period
  • PRN usage

  • Seclusion, restraint, locked areas

  • Access to healthcare

  • Average number of episodes

  • Average number of episodes

  • % of units who reported a delay in patients accessing primary (nurse/dentist) healthcare

Mason67 High secureCross-sectional
12-month period
  • Seclusion

  • Number of patients secluded; average number of seclusion episodes per patient/year; reason for seclusion and distress-related behaviours after seclusion

  • ASD, autism spectrum disorder; PRN, pro re nata.