Table 7 Initial framework of outcome domains and sub-domains
Number of studies
Effectiveness
 Discharge outcome/direction of care pathway26
 Delayed discharge/current placement appropriateness6
 Length of hospital stay22
 Readmission (i.e. readmitted to the same setting)4
 Clinical symptom severity (clinician rated)16
 Clinical symptom severity/treatment needs: patient rated6
 Treatment response/engagement5
 Treatment need2
 Reoffending (i.e. charges/reconvictions)18
 ‘Offending-like’ behaviour (which did not result in charges)5
 Risk assessment measures12
 Incidents (violence/self-harm)14
 Security need2
 Other3
 Total139
Patient safety
 Restrictive practices (restraint/relocation/ locked areas/intensive observations)12
 Restrictive practices (seclusion/segregation)9
 Medication (i.e. PRN usage/exceeding BNF prescribing limits)3
 Physical health1
 Premature death/suicide1
 Total26
Patient experience
 Quality of life4
 Therapeutic milieu3
 Patient experience: involvement1
 Patient experience: satisfaction/complaints3
 Total11
  • Each study can be included in more than one sub-domain. PRN, pro re nata; BNF, British National Formulary.