Table 1 Previous mental healthcare consumption among prisoners with versus without childhood-onset conduct disorder
Total (n = 254–269)COCD (n = 70–73)LOVB (n = 183–195)Comparison, Pa
n (%)n (%)n (%)
Previous CAP contact106 (40)36 (50)70 (36)0.044
Age at first CAP contact, years; mean (s.d.)11.1 (3.6)10.4 (3.5)11.5 (3.7)0.153
Pharmacological treatment at CAP28 (11)10 (14)18 (9)0.287
Psychotherapy at CAP24 (9)10 (14)14 (7)0.093
Previous adult psychiatric (AP) contact86 (32)31 (43)54 (28)0.026
Age at first AP contact, years; mean (s.d.)19.2 (1.8)18.8 (1.8)19.5 (1.8)0.098
Compulsory treatment8 (3)4 (6)4 (2)0.160
Previous forensic psychiatric investigation11 (4)4 (6)7 (4)0.560
Treated at forensic psychiatric unit27 (10)9 (12)18 (9)0.486
Pharmacological treatment at AP51 (19)22 (30)28 (15)0.004*
Psychotherapy at AP26 (9)9 (12)16 (8)0.371
Previous pharmacological treatment
Any antidepressants, indicated by depression75 (28)26 (36)49 (25)0.098
Mood stabilizers, indicated by depression16 (6)10 (14)6 (3)0.002*
Lithium, indicated by mood swings0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)NA
Valproate, indicated by mood swings4 (2)3 (4)1 (1)0.038
Lamotrigine, indicated by mood swings1 (0)0 (0)1 (1)0.992
Any antipsychotics, any indication28 (10)17 (23)11 (6)0.000*
Depot injections0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)NA
Classical antipsychotics, any indication4 (2)4 (6)0 (0)0.002*
Risperidone, any indication7 (3)4 (6)3 (2)0.079
Olanzapine, any indication13 (5)6 (8)7 (4)0.121
Quetiapine, any indication9 (3)7 (10)2 (1)0.000*
Aripiprazole, any indication1 (0)1 (1)0 (0)0.119
Any stimulant, indicated by ADHD30 (11)10 (14)19 (10)0.404
Atomoxetine indicated by ADHD3 (1)0 (0)3 (2)0.325
  • ADHD, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; CAP, child and adolescent psychiatric services; COCD, childhood-onset conduct disorder; LOVB, late onset of violent behaviour; NA, not applicable.

  • a P-value corrected by the Benjamini–Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR) procedure.

  • * Values marked with an asterisk remain significant after FDR correction.