Table 3 Personality disorders among offenders with versus without childhood-onset conduct disorder
Total (n = 264–268)COCD (n = 71–73)LOVB (n = 193–195)PaORb (95% CI)
n (%)n (%)n (%)
Any PD177 (67)64 (90)113 (59)0.000*6.5 (2.8–14.9)
Paranoid26 (10)12 (16)14 (7)0.0262.5 (1.1–5.8)
Schizoid0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)NANA
Schizotypal0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)NANA
Conduct disorder210 (78)73 (100)137 (70)0.000*NA
Antisocial170 (63)66 (90)104 (53)0.000*8.3 (3.6–18.9)
Borderline13 (5)5 (7)8 (4)0.4041.7 (0.5–5.4)
Histrionic0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)NANA
Narcissistic0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)NANA
Avoidant4 (2)1 (1)3 (2)0.9630.9 (0.1–8.7)
Dependent1 (0)0 (0)1 (1)0.727NA
Obsessive–compulsive5 (2)2 (3)3 (2)0.5961.8 (0.3–11.0)
Depressive4 (2)0 (0)4 (2)0.259NA
Passive–aggressive6 (2)1 (1)5 (3)0.7320.5 (0.1–4.7)
PD NOS19 (7)4 (6)15 (8)0.7270.7 (0.2–2.2)
≥2 PDs49 (19)21 (30)28 (15)0.006*2.5 (1.3–4.7)
  • COCD, childhood onset conduct disorder; LOVB, late onset of violent behaviour; NA, not applicable; NOS, not otherwise specified; PD, personality disorder.

  • a P-value corrected by the Benjamini–Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR) procedure.

  • * Values marked with an asterisk remain significant after FDR correction.

  • b Odds ratios (OR) <1.0 indicate lower risk, OR>1.0 indicate higher risk. Clinically meaningful effects defined as OR≥2.0 or ≤0.5.