Table 2 Prevalence of Axis I disordersa among prisoners with and without childhood-onset conduct disorder
Total (n = 267–270)COCD (n = 72–73)LOVB (n = 192–195)PbOR (95% CI)c
n (%)n (%)n (%)
Any mood disorder145 (54)50 (69)95 (49)0.004*2.3 (1.3–4.0)
Major depressive disorder131 (49)43 (59)88 (45)0.0451.7 (1.0–3.0)
Bipolar disorder14 (5)7 (10)7 (4)0.0512.8 (1.0–8.4)
Any anxiety disorder138 (52)46 (64)92 (47)0.0162.0 (1.1–3.5)
Panic disorder and/or agoraphobia79 (30)26 (36)53 (27)0.1601.5 (0.9–2.7)
Specific phobia9 (3)2 (3)7 (4)0.8030.8 (0.2–3.8)
Social phobia7 (3)4 (6)3 (2)0.0723.8 (0.8–17.3)
Obsessive–compulsive disorder22 (8)12 (17)10 (5)0.003*3.7 (1.5–9.0)
Post-traumatic stress disorder28 (11)9 (13)19 (10)0.5961.3 (0.6–3.1)
Generalised anxiety disorder5 (2)2 (3)3 (2)0.5961.8 (0.3–11.2)
Acute stress disorder13 (5)5 (7)8 (4)0.3871.7 (0.6–5.5)
Substance-induced anxiety22 (8)7 (10)15 (8)0.7321.3 (0.5–3.3)
Any substance use disorder226 (84)68 (93)158 (81)0.0153.2 (1.2–8.5)
Alcohol130 (49)43 (59)87 (45)0.0391.8 (1.0–3.1)
Cannabis206 (77)64 (88)142 (73)0.0122.6 (1.2–5.6)
Stimulants156 (59)50 (69)106 (55)0.0461.8 (1.0–3.1)
Hallucinogens90 (34)33 (45)57 (30)0.0162.0 (1.1–3.4)
Sedative–hypnotic–anxiolytic129 (49)44 (60)86 (45)0.0181.9 (1.1–3.3)
Heroin90 (34)31 (43)59 (31)0.0691.7 (1.0–2.9)
Opioid analgesics111 (42)35 (48)76 (39)0.2021.4 (0.8–2.5)
Other substances113 (57)42 (58)71 (37)0.002*2.4 (1.4–4.1)
Any psychotic disorder22 (8)13 (18)8 (4)0.0003*5.1 (2.0–12.8)
Somatisation disorder1 (0)0 (0)1 (1)0.726NA
Any eating disorder3 (1)0 (0)3 (2)0.325NA
Any impulse control disorder56 (21)20 (27)35 (18)0.1191.7 (0.9–3.1)
Intermittent explosive disorder10 (4)5 (7)5 (3)0.1152.8 (0.8–9.8)
Kleptomania5 (2)0 (0)5 (3)0.187NA
Pyromania3 (1)1 (1)2 (1)0.8721.3 (0.1–15.1)
Pathological gambling43 (16)15 (21)28 (15)0.2281.6 (0.8–3.1)
Dissociative disorder2 (1)2 (3)0 (0)0.026NA
Any sexual disorder3 (1)2 (3)1 (1)0.1395.4 (0.5–60.9)
≥1 Axis I disorder250 (93)72 (99)178 (91)0.0386.9 (0.9–52.6)
≥3 Axis I disordersa114 (43)43 (59)71 (36)0.001*2.5 (1.4–4.3)
  • COCD, childhood-onset conduct disorder; LOVB, late onset of violent behaviour; NA, not applicable.

  • a Except neurodevelopmental disorders.

  • b P-value corrected by the Benjamini–Hochberg false discovery rate (FDR) procedure.

  • * Values marked with an asterisk remain significant after FDR correction.

  • c Odds ratios (OR) <1.0 indicate lower risk, OR>1.0 indicate higher risk. Clinically meaningful effects defined as OR≥2.0 or ≤0.5.