Table 1 Sample characteristics at/around Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis by exposure status
VariableC-ACEIs only (n=1207)NC-ACEIs only (n=143)Neither agent (n=3910)Pa
Mean age at diagnosis (s.d.), years80.5 (7.1)81.4 (7.0)80.2 (8.0)0.116
Age at diagnosis, n (%)0.095
 <6527 (2.2)1 (0.7)170 (4.3)
 65–6962 (5.1)7 (4.8)177 (4.5)
 70–74130 (10.8)15 (11)420 (10.7)
 75–79266 (22.0)22 (15.1)735 (18.8)
 80–84329 (27.3)49 (33.6)1021 (26.1)
 85–89280 (23.2)29 (20.5)892 (22.8)
 90 and over113 (9.4)20 (14.4)495 (12.7)
Age at death, n (%)0.127
 <651 (0.1)0 (0)24 (0.6)
 65–697 (0.6)0 (0)26 (0.7)
 70–7422 (1.8)3 (2.7)83 (2.1)
 75–7973 (6.0)7 (4.8)201 (5.1)
 80–84134 (11.1)15 (10.3)433 (11.1)
 85–89151 (12.5)23 (16.4)583 (14.9)
 90 and over145 (12.0)22 (15.1)594 (15.2)
Alive at end of follow-up, n (%)674 (55.8)73 (50.7)1966 (50.3)0.013
Ethnicity, n (%)<0.001
 European961 (79.6)109 (76.0)3270 (83.6)
 Non-European246 (20.4)34 (24.0)640 (16.4)
Gender, n (%)0.009
 Male442 (36.6)55 (38.4)1301 (33.3)
 Female765 (63.4)88 (61.6)2609 (66.7)
Mean (s.d.) index of multiple deprivation27.1 (11.2)28.1 (11.2)26.0 (11.2)<0.001
Mean ACE inhibitors follow-up years (s.d.)0.8 (1.5)1.1 (1.8)0.024
Medications received, n (%)
 Antihypertensives617 (51.1)80 (55.9)1684 (43.1)<0.001
 Antipsychotics328 (27.2)39 (27.3)995 (25.4)0.884
 Antidepressants459 (38.0)48 (33.6)1261 (32.3)0.695
MMSE scores, mean (s.d.)
 Score closest to diagnosis19.0 (6.3)19.9 (6.9)19.1 (6.5)0.71
 Number of MMSE scores per patient4.6 (3.8)4.7 (4.1)4.0 (3.6)<0.001
 Interval between diagnosis and MMSE score closest to diagnosis, yearsb 0.0 (0.7 )−0.1 (0.7)−0.1 (0.8)0.033
 Interval between first mention of an ACE inhibitor and diagnosis, yearsc −0.1 (1.7)−0.5 (2.0)0.041
Mean (s.d.) HoNOS subscale score
 Agitated behaviour0.7 (1.0)0.7 (1.0)0.7 (1.0)0.652
 Self-injury0.1 (0.4)0.1 (0.3)0.1 (0.3)0.481
 Problem drinking/drug use0.1 (0.4)0.1 (0.3)0.1 (0.4)0.248
 Cognitive problems2.4 (0.8)2.4 (0.8)2.4 (0.9)0.937
 Physical illness1.6 (1.1)1.6 (1.2)1.4 (1.2)<0.001
 Hallucinations/delusions0.4 (0.9)0.5 (0.9)0.4 (0.8)0.367
 Depressed mood0.6 (0.8)0.6 (0.8)0.6 (0.8)0.289
 Other mental problems0.8 (1.0)0.8 (1.0)0.8 (1.0)0.287
 Relationship problems0.6 (0.9)0.7 (0.9)0.6 (0.9)0.281
 Daily living problems1.8 (1.1)1.8 (1.1)1.7 (1.2)0.843
 Living conditions problems0.4 (0.8)0.5 (0.9)0.4 (0.8)0.609
 Occupational problems1.1 (1.1)1.2 (1.1)1.0 (1.1)0.143
Mean (s.d.) interval between HoNOS and diagnosis, years0.1 (0.6)0.2 (0.7)0.2 (0.8)0.082
  • C-ACEIs, centrally acting angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; NC-ACEIs, non-centrally acting angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; HoNOS, Health of the Nation Outcome Scales.

  • a Difference in means between three groups tested using one-way ANOVA test, difference in means between two medication groups were tested using independent sample t-tests, differences in frequencies tested using chi-squared tests.

  • b Negative values indicating that MMSE scores recorded before Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis.

  • c Negative values indicating ACE inhibitor medication recorded before Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis.