Table 2 Descriptive statistics derived from work safety climate instruments
Staff on forensic wardsStaff on non-forensic wards
Perception of safety at work (1 to 10) (%)n=118n=75
 5 or less26.320.5
 6–721.227.4
 834.721.9
 9–1017.830.1
Work Safety Scale (WSS) (mean, s.d.)n=118n=75
 Job safety2.9 (0.7)3.1 (0.8)
 Co-worker safetya3.9 (0.6)4.1 (0.6)
 Supervisor safety3.8 (0.6)3.8 (0.7)
 Management safety practices3.6 (0.6)3.7 (0.8)
 Safety policies and programmes3.7 (0.6)3.8 (0.7)
 WSS total scoreb3.6 (0.5)3.7 (0.5)
Perceptions of Violence Climate Scale (PVCM) (% ‘Yes’)n=118n=75
 Does your employer provide assault/violence prevention training?99.298.3
 Does your employer provide assault/violence prevention policies and procedures?98.398.6
 Are there procedures in place in your facility for reporting violence?100.097.3
 Does management encourage staff to report physical violence?99.289.0
 Does management encourage staff to report verbal violence?c90.772.6
 Are reports of workplace violence from other employees taken seriously by the management?78.675.3
 When patients/residents assault staff, does management consider it just a ‘part of the job’?d29.730.1
 PVCM total score (mode (%))6 (73.7%)6 (63%)
Perceptions of the Prevalence of Aggression Scale (POPAS) (% endorsing modal category)n=118 Mode (%)n=73 Mode (%)
 Verbal aggressionFrequently (40.0)Frequently (46.6)
 Threatening verbal aggressionSometimes (26.0)Occasionally (28.6)
 Humiliating aggressive behaviourOccasionally (25.7)Occasionally (28.1)
 Provocative aggressive behaviourSometimes (28.7)Sometimes (29.3)
 Passive aggressive behaviourOccasionally (28.0)Sometimes (37.5)
 Aggressive splitting behaviourFrequently (29)Sometimes (43.9)
 Threatening physical aggressionSometimese (28)Sometimesf (31.6)
 Destructive aggressive behaviourOccasionally (34)Occasionally (40.4)
 Physical violence without physical injuryOccasionally (27.3)Occasionallyg (33.3)
 Physical violence leading to injuryNever (76.8)Never (78.9)
 POPAS total score (mean, s.d. (available range 1–5))2.8 (0.97)2.8 (0.88)
  • a Significant difference forensic versus non-forensic wards: Mann–Whitney U-test=4573.5, P=0.024.

  • b Significant difference forensic versus non-forensic wards: Mann–Whitney U-test=4592.0, P=0.037.

  • c Significant difference forensic versus non-forensic wards: Chi square=0.82, P<0.05.

  • d Reverse scored.

  • e Multiple mode: equal frequency for ‘occasionally’.

  • f Multiple mode: equal frequency for ‘occasionally’.

  • g Multiple mode: equal frequency for ‘never’.