Table 1 Descriptive statistics derived from the Ward Features Checklist
Type of ward
Forensic (n=34)Non-forensic (n=26)
Ward Features Checklist: continuous variables (mean, s.d.)
 Total physical space (m2)283.3 (153.4)208.5 (99.8)
 Common useable indoor space (dayroom, m2)109.2 (78.6)63.4 (26.6)
 Common useable outdoor space (accessible through ward, m2)116.5 (63.4)100.2 (69.7)
 Maximum ceiling height4.6 (3.3)3.1 (1.1)
 Minimum ceiling heighta3.8 (2.3)2.6 (0.2)
 Daylight level inside (Lux)95.3 (81.9)123.6 (211.8)
 Average temperature inside (C) (across 3 time points)22.5 (2.4)22.6 (2.1)
 Average noise level inside (dB)a (across 3 time points)67.0 (7.0)66.8 (9.9)
Categorical variables (n,%)
 Patient en-suite toilet available27 (79.4)15 (57.7)
 Staff toilet available27 (79.4)23 (88.5)
 Laminate/timber flooring28 (82.4)23 (88.5)
 Yellow colour scheme (mainly)21 (61.8)21 (80.8)
Number of windows
 Two windows10 (29.4)5 (20.8)
 Three windows6 (17.6)5 (20.8)
 Three plus18 (53.0)14 (58.4)
View (from window)
 Greenery6 (19.4)8 (33.3)
 Concrete/building5 (16.1)5 (20.8)
 Mixed20 (64.5)11 (45.8)
Entertainment available
 TV/DVD32 (94.1)23 (88.5)
 Computer games29 (85.3)22 (84.6)
 Occupational therapy activities/recreational16 (47.1)8 (30.8)
 Social games23 (67.6)14 (53.8)
Floor level location
 Ground30 (88.2)20 (76.9)
 First floor4 (11.8)5 (19.2)
 Second floor0 (0)1 (3.8)
 Patient can open window22 (64.7)20 (76.9)
 Patient can control temperatureb2 (5.9)17 (65.4)
 Patient can lock bedroom31 (91.2)17 (65.4)
  • a Statistically significant difference forensic versus non-forensic wards: Mann–Whitney U-test=300.0, P=0.000.

  • b Statistically significant difference forensic versus non-forensic wards: Chi square=4.734, P=0.030.