Table 1 Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the sample
VariablesOverall (N=3220)Moderate/severe depression (N=576)Only severe depression (N=139)
n (%)n (%)n (%)
Demographic variables
Age, years
 18–29905 (27.56)89 (10.11)20 (2.46)
 30–491501 (46.99)279 (18.26)61 (4.13)
 50+814 (25.45)208 (24.72)58 (6.82)
Gender
 Male1776 (54.65)298 (16.78)71 (4.05)
 Female1444 (45.35)278 (18.72)68 (4.72)
Religion
 Hindu2891 (89.77)515 (17.59)126 (4.42)
 Muslim327 (10.18)61 (18.39)13 (3.82)
 Buddhist/Sikh2 (0.05)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)
Caste
 Scheduled caste586 (19.72)114 (19.30)25 (4.17)
 Scheduled tribe152 (5.05)22 (14.68)8 (6.01)
 OBC2043 (62.08)384 (18.46)92 (4.47)
 General439 (13.15)56 (12.54)14 (3.43)
Marital status
 Currently married2713 (84.52)480 (17.54)119 (4.39)
 Widowed/separated/divorced/deserted163 (5.01)57 (32.49)12 (7.01)
 Unmarried344 (10.47)39 (11.55)8 (2.75)
Socioeconomic variables
Education
 Illiterate/did not complete primary education1782 (56.28)394 (21.51)104 (5.77)
 Completed primary education1026 (31.14)149 (14.96)26 (2.82)
 Completed secondary education412 (12.58)33 (7.09)9 (1.83)
Occupation
 Unemployed137 (4.09)36 (25.67)16 (11.63)
 Non-income work1081 (33.59)183 (16.65)41 (3.82)
 Low income1705 (53.11)315 (18.33)71 (4.25)
 High income297 (9.21)42 (13.91)11 (3.67)
Variables related to recent socioeconomic condition
Employed with MNREGA
 Yes217 (7.49)38 (17.53)9 (4.24)
 No/not applicable3003 (92.51)538 (17.67)130 (4.36)
Type of house
 Kuccha1330 (43.62)250 (18.70)64 (4.77)
 Semi-pucca866 (26.24)125 (13.63)30 (3.26)
 Pucca1023 (30.11)201 (19.68)45 (4.71)
Own land
 Yes875 (27.05)153 (17.47)42 (4.80)
 No2345 (72.95)423 (17.73)97 (4.19)
Taken loan (Indebtedness)
 Yes751 (23.80)161 (21.98)48 (6.73)
 No2469 (76.20)415 (16.31)91 (3.61)
Loan amount
 First tertile296 (40.42)72 (25.03)23 (8.03)
 Second tertile220 (29.28)48 (22.33)12 (6.19)
 Third tertile240 (3030)41 (17.10)13 (5.37)
  • OBC, other backward caste; MNREGA, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.