Table 2 Univariable association of demographic and socioeconomic variables with moderate/severe and only severe depression
VariablesModerate/severe depressionOnly severe depression
Unadjusted PR (95% CI)Unadjusted PR (95% CI)
Demographic variables
Age, years
 18–2911
 30–491.81 (1.45–2.25)1.68 (0.91–3.10)
 50+2.44 (1.96–3.05)2.77 (1.61–4.77)
Gender
 Male11
 Female1.11 (0.97–1.28)1.16 (0.86–1.58)
Religion
 Hindu11
 Muslim1.04 (0.83–1.32)0.86 (0.50–1.48)
Caste
 Scheduled caste11
 Scheduled tribe0.76 (0.51–1.12)1.44 (0.71–2.90)
 OBC0.96 (0.81–1.13)1.07 (0.73–1.56)
 General0.64 (0.48–0.87)0.82 (0.42–1.60)
Marital status
 Currently married11
 Widowed/separated/divorced/deserted1.85 (1.50–2.28)1.59 (0.90–2.83)
 Unmarried0.66 (0.49–0.87)0.63 (0.32–1.22)
Socioeconomic variables
Education
 Illiterate/did not complete primary education11
 Completed primary education0.69 (0.58–0.84)0.49 (0.32–0.74)
 Completed secondary education0.33 (0.23–0.47)0.32 (0.17–0.61)
Occupation
 Unemployed11
 Non-income work0.65 (0.48–0.87)0.33 (0.19–0.56)
 Low income0.71 (0.56–0.91)0.36 (0.23–0.58)
 High income0.54 (0.38–0.78)0.31 (0.15–0.65)
Variables related to recent socioeconomic condition
Employed with MNREGA
 No/not applicable11
 Yes0.99 (0.74–1.32)0.97 (0.44–2.14)
Type of house
 Kuccha11
 Semi-pucca0.73 (0.58–0.91)0.68 (0.46–1.01)
 Pucca1.05 (0.90–1.23)0.99 (0.67–1.46)
Own land
 No11
 Yes0.98 (0.84–1.16)1.15 (0.80–1.64)
Taken loan (indebtedness)
 No11
 Yes1.35 (1.12–1.62)1.86 (1.29–2.68)
Loan amount
 First tertile11
 Second tertile0.89 (0.65–1.21)0.77 (0.41–1.45)
 Third tertile0.68 (0.49–0.96)0.67 (0.36–1.26)
  • PR, prevalence ratio; CI, confidence interval; OBC, other backward caste; MNREGA, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.