Table 1 Descriptive statistics and odds of exposure to high levels of violence
% Adjusted for survey design (N)Odds of being in top quartile of exposure to violence (95% CI)
Gender
 Male46.1 (433)1
 Female53.9 (507)0.54 (0.34–0.84)
Ethnicity
 Black26.5 (276)1
 White10.0 (102)0.20 (0.03–1.37)
 Coloured60.6 (603)0.59 (0.31–1.13)
 Indian2.1 (21)0.17 (0.04–0.81)
 Other0.8 (8)0.27 (0.02–4.58)
Physical activity per week
 None25.1 (255)1
 About half an hour23.1 (230)0.99 (0.61–1.60)
 About 1 h19.2 (194)0.79 (0.39–1.57)
 About 2–3 h17.7 (177)0.95 (0.36–2.49)
 About 4–6 h8.9 (90)0.66 (0.09–4.85)
 7 h or more6.0 (61)0.68 (0.07–6.96)
Smoked a whole cigarette in past week
 No80.4 (812)1
 Yes19.6 (197)3.22 (1.51–6.88)
Used alcohol in past 4 weeks
 No83.2 (834)1
 Yes16.8 (170)4.40 (2.04–9.50)
Smoked marijuana in past 4 weeks
 No92.0 (930)1
 Yes8.0 (81)5.99 (2.83–12.66)
Amenities in home
 Television97.3 (995)0.49 (0.06–4.27)
 Electricity98.7 (1012)0.29 (0.04–1.94)
 Tap water96.4 (988)0.54 (0.13–2.16)
 Motor car or bakkie68.7 (692)0.46 (0.18–1.17)
 Indoor bathroom81.6 (827)0.49 (0.20–1.21)
Type of home
 Shack7.3 (77)1
 Wendy house (prefabricated shack)6.3 (66)1.94 (1.07–3.52)
 Brick house75.5 (761)0.73 (0.25–2.14)
 Flat9.6 (98)1.33 (0.78–2.27)
 Other1.2 (12)0.56 (0.10–2.95)
Self-rated financial difficulty
 Have money for luxury goods and extra things29.1 (275)1
 Have most important things, few luxury goods35.2 (333)1.69 (1.05–2.73)
 Enough for food and clothes but short of other things15.7 (152)2.44 (0.76–7.79)
 Enough for food, not other basic items12.1 (118)2.81 (1.48–5.37)
 Not enough money for food7.9 (78)2.74 (0.98–7.62)
Household receiving grants
 No66.6 (642)1
 Yes33.4 (329)1.68 (0.97–2.91)
Maternal employment
 Yes67.8 (643)1
 No25.5 (245)1.07 (0.47–2.43)
 Do not live with mother6.7 (64)1.36 (0.58–3.17)
Paternal employment
 Yes70.1 (666)1
 No10.7 (104)1.99 (0.70–5.63)
 Do not live with father19.2 (186)1.92 (1.22–3.03)
Tertiles of parental monitoring
 Bottom24.8 (222)1
 Mid33.8 (303)0.70 (0.38–1.31)
 Top41.5 (372)0.42 (0.17–1.05)
Exposed to violence
 Yes84.1 (869)
 No15.9 (165)
Case on SMFQ
 No58.8 (580)1
 Yes41.2 (405)2.89 (1.76–4.77)
Case on SAS
 No84.4 (801)1
 Yes15.6 (148)3.14 (1.66–5.94)
Case on HTQ PTSD scale
 No78.5 (193)1
 Yes21.5 (698)4.58 (2.37–8.85)
Has attempted suicide
 No86.6 (876)1
 Yes13.4 (137)3.62 (1.60–8.18)
  • SMFQ, Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire; SAS, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale; HTQ, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder.