Table 2 Association between outcomes possible PTSD and probable PTSD and cognitive ability score in Danish Army military personnel evaluated in two multilevel logistic regression models per outcome
Possible PTSDProbable PTSD
Model 1bModel 2cModel 1bModel 2c
Independent variablesOR (CI)OR (CI)OR (CI)OR (CI)
Cognitive ability scored0.90 (0.85–0.94)0.97 (0.92–1.02)0.89 (0.82–0.96)0.97 (0.90–1.05)
Level of education at time of conscription
 Low or middle level1111
 High level0.73 (0.59–0.90)0.64 (0.51–0.80)0.63 (0.44–0.89)0.54 (0.39–0.76)
 Female4.14 (2.86–5.99)6.19 (4.23–9.05)3.69 (2.11–6.44)5.38 (3.15–9.21)
Age at deployment1.00 (0.98–1.01)1.01 (0.99–1.04)
Marital status at deployment
 Married or cohabitant11
 Single1.08 (0.90–1.30)1.11 (0.83–1.47)
Military rank at deployment
 Non-commissioned officer, commissioned officer or civilian0.45 (0.35–0.58)0.49 (0.33–0.71)
Social support during deployment and after homecoming
 High0.72 (0.60–0.86)0.62 (0.47–0.83)
Perceived war-zone stress scoree1.25 (1.22–1.29)1.28 (1.23–1.33)
Deployment country or region
 The Balkans11
 Afghanistan1.65 (1.30–2.10)1.34 (0.92–1.95)
 Iraq1.05 (0.80–1.39)0.67 (0.42–1.06)
 Other0.82 (0.37–1.85)1.21 (0.38–3.91)
  • OR, Odds ratio; CI, confidence interval. Possible PTSD: cut-off score 24.5 on PRIM-PTSD scale, used for screening. Probable PTSD: cut-off score 29.5 on PRIM-PTSD scale, used to identify suspected clinical cases.

  • a Outcome recorded 6–8 months post-deployment.

  • b Model 1: Adjustment for gender and level of education at time of conscript board examination.

  • c Model 2: Model 1 with additional adjustment for deployment-related variables: age at deployment, marital status, military rank, social support during and after deployment, danger/injury score (perceived war-zone stress during deployment) and deployment country/region.

  • d OR for cognitive ability score increased by half standard deviation (7.5) is shown.

  • e OR for perceived war-zone stress score increased by one unit is shown.