Table 2 Summary statistics and bivariate associations for variables used in the studya
Child ext.Child int.Child total problemsMother BPD symptomsMother depression trajectorybMother EPDSMother negative emo.Child negative emo.High riskHigh deprivationMother ageMother education >18 yearsMarried/cohabiting
Child externalising at 2.5 years10.61***0.89***0.37***−0.18**0.24***0.26***0.26***0.19**0.02−0.20**−0.09−0.21**
Child internalising at 2.5 years10.82**0.35***−0.27***0.27***0.30***0.21**0.13**0.11−0.16**−0.14*−0.27***
Child total problems at 2.5 years10.40***−0.25***0.28***0.29***0.27***0.16**0.07−0.17**−0.13−0.22***
Mother BPD symptoms1−0.29**0.28***0.57***0.19**0.29***0.15*−0.23***−0.15*−0.25***
Mother depression trajectory1−0.58***−0.52***−0.22**−0.180.090.080.050.28
Mother EPDS at 2.5 years10.34***0.12−0.03−0.05−0.05−0.01−0.18**
Mother negative emotionality10.30***0.37***0.04−0.14*−0.06−0.26***
Child negative emotionality10.080.09−0.21**0.01−0.12
High-risk allocation to sample10.08−0.120.01−0.23
High deprivation1−0.28***−0.38***−0.29**
Mother age10.22***0.32***
Mother education >18 years10.35**
Number251251251251251246243241251251251251251
Mean10.316.0526.59.962.195.190.762.820.421.6227.940.470.77
s.d.6.755.2016.92.040.704.950.510.620.820.496.150.500.42
  • ext., externalising; int., internalising; BPD, borderline personality disorder; EPDS, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; emo., emotionality.

  • a Associations estimated using Spearman’s Rank, polychoric and tetrachoric correlations; ***<0.001; **<0.01; *<0.05.

  • b Mother depression trajectory coded: 1=high, 2=intermediate, 3=very low.