Table 4 Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) scores by migration background
SDQ Total Difficulties ScoreSDQ Emotional ScoreSDQ Hyperactivity/Inattention ScoreSDQ Conduct ScoreSDQ Peer Problems ScoreSDQ Pro-social Score
Coefficient (95% CI)PCoefficient (95% CI)PCoefficient (95% CI)PCoefficient (95% CI)PCoefficient (95% CI)PCoefficient (95% CI)P
Estimated mean value of reference group (non-migrants)8.34 (7.75–8.94)<0.00051.49 (1.25–1.73)<0.00053.18 (2.92–3.43)<0.00052.13 (1.91–2.35)<0.00051.54 (1.26–1.82)<0.00056.89 (6.54–7.24)<0.0005
First-generation migrants (European origin)0.41 (−0.09–0.90)0.110.08 (−0.14–0.29)0.480.01 (−0.20–0.23)0.910.09 (−0.07–0.25)0.270.22 (0.07–0.38)0.01−0.02 (−0.19–0.16)0.87
Second-generation migrants (European origin)0.08 (−0.27–0.42)0.670.02 (−0.13–0.17)0.79−0.06 (−0.21–0.09)0.450.08 (−0.32–0.19)0.170.02 (−.08–0.13)0.660.12 (0.001–0.25)0.04
First-generation migrants (non-European origin)1.34 (0.67–2.01)<0.00050.08 (−0.21–0.37)0.590.33 (0.03–0.62)0.030.22 (0.002–0.43)0.040.70 (0.48–0.91)<0.0005−0.41 (−0.65–0.16)0.001
Second-generation migrants (non-European origin)0.88 (0.35–1.40)<0.00050.13 (−0.10–0.35)0.270.28 (0.05–0.51)0.020.33 (0.16–0.49)<0.00050.13 (−0.04–0.29)0.130.14 (−0.05–0.33)0.15
  • Note: Multilevel mixed effects linear regression coefficients and their 95% confidence intervals adjusted for the fixed effects of age, gender, socioeconomic status, household composition and MIPEX integration score, and for clustering of pupils within schools and within countries.